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Essay Outlines

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Essay Outlines

Topic 1: US withdrawal from Afghanistan and its implications for Pakistan

1. Introduction
■ Unstable Afghanistan: a serious threat for Pakistan
2. Brief history of neighbouring country’s problematic existence for Pakistan
3. US withdrawal from Afghanistan: An overview
4. Implications for Pakistan
 A. Opportunities for Pakistan
i. Pakistan still holds the shortest all-season supply route to Afghanistan
ii. CIA needs Pakistan to “collect and act on terrorist attacks”
iii. Pak-US relations beyond short-term security interests
iv. Islamabad shares friendly ties with present government in Kabul
   B. Disadvantages for Pakistan
i. Deteriorating Pak-US relations: US wants limited cooperation
ii. Afghanistan becoming home to transnational terrorist networks
iii. Possible influx of extremist confluences
iv. Sanctuaries for Pakistan-based extremist groups
v. Political risk and strategic costs
5. Recommendations to limit the disadvantages and maximize gains from opportunities
a. Civil and military leadership should re-adjust their focus
b. Tone down own political rhetoric
c. Washington needs to shun looking at Islamabad from the perspective of neighbouring countries, India and China
d. Geo-strategic approach be predicated on economic growth
e. Stability in Afghanistan, but not at the cost of Pakistan
f. Diplomatic efforts to fetch international support: lobbying China and Russia
6. Conclusion

Topic 2: Current political crisis and  the future of democracy in Pakistan

1. Introduction
■ The ongoing political turmoil does not bode well for the future of democracy in Pakistan. However, there are still certain hopes which can help Pakistani democracy to flourish.
2. Manifestations of political turmoil in the country
a. Rising populism and the resultant political polarization in the country
b. Lack of consensus over key issues of national interest
■ Deadlock over electoral reforms, National Finance Commission Award and formation of new provinces for administrative convenience
c. Ineffective role of the parliament to eliminate political divisions
d. Prevalence of politics of street agitation
e. Denial on the part of political parties to accept each other’s legitimacy
f. Widening schism in civil-military relations
g. Failure of the previous government to complete its tenure and the ensuing political anarchy
h. Allegations of foreign meddling, leading to rising intolerance among the general masses
3. Factors responsible for the political fiasco in the country 
a. Excessive meddling of unelected institutions in the political sphere
b. Failure of judiciary to fulfil its constitutional role
c. Inability of democratic culture to strengthen and flourish in the country
d. Fragile political institutions working for the interests of specific groups
e. Shoddy and short-sighted economic policies by successive regimes
f. Lopsided system of accountability, targeting political opponents
g. Role of world powers in Pakistan’s politics
h. Loyalty of media houses with one political party or another
4. Future of democracy in Pakistan 
a. Rise of civil society against excesses of government and unelected institutions
b. Growing power of social media
c. Restraint by the unelected intuitions to have a direct hold on power
d. Successful completion of democratic tenure of two successive governments
e. Realization of public accountability on the part of military
5. Recommendations
a. Strengthening of democratic culture in political parties: Conducting intra-party elections on truly democratic lines
b. Unelected institutions should adhere strictly to their domains
c. New charter of economy and democracy is the need of the hour
d. Lifting ban on student unions to produce future leaders
6. Conclusion

Topic 3: A people that values its privileges above its principles loses both

1. Introduction
2. Meaning of the maxim (Dwight D. Eisenhower)
3. Defining the concepts of
a. Privileges: Prerogative, rights, entitlements
b. Principles: Fundamental truths, duties
c. Equation: Principles to be adhered to first to cherish the privileges
4. Importance of Principles over Privileges
a. Principles are seeds; Privileges are fruits
b. Privileges are a construction over foundation of Principles
c. Principles are hard work; Privileges are rewards
5. Abandoning the Principles results in losing the Privileges: Supporting arguments
a. Commercial approach of mentorship loses respect
b. Envious relations: messed-up family life
c. Lack of credibility and goodwill in organizations: lost consumer base
d. Countries with little respect for human rights: lost integrity
e. Selfish leader: lost popular support
f. International society without values: inviting anarchy
6. Impacts: Examples from history and the contemorary international society
a. Fall of Arabs and European Renaissance
b. End of Muslim rule in India
c. Pathetic conditions of Middle Eastern countries
d. Policies of Shah of Iran provoking revolution
e. The Arab Spring; a glaring example of losing privileges if principles forgotten
f. Surge of street power in Venezuela, Hong Kong and Lebanon
7. Recommendations: Valuing Principles and enjoying Privileges simultaneously

Topic 4: Beggars can’t be choosers

1. Introduction
2. Importance of self-reliance and freedom of choice
3. Defining the concepts involved
4. Some beggars who are not choosers: Instances
 A. Individual perspective
■ Educational background and job desires
■ Aptitude level and issues of meritocracy
■ Depending on others’ support and rooting for self-respect
B. Global perspective
■ Veto power-wielding countries control the United Nations
■ Dependence of the United Nations on the United States for funds
■ Arab countries’ ties with India vis-à-vis Pakistan
■ Preference to Israel over Palestine
C. Pakistan and its international reputation: A case study
■  Pak-US relations: Masters not friends
i) Past violations of territorial sovereignty: Drone attacks, OBL operation, Salala Check Post attack
ii) Visits of Prime Minister to US and Russia
iii) Compromised foreign policy of Pakistan
iv) US preferring India over Pakistan: Lessons from history
5. Was Pakistan a nation born with a begging bowl: Absolutely No!
■ Comparison with India: a country cut from same fabric
6. Recommendations: Making country stand on own support
■ Reliance on indigent natural resources
■ “Friends, not masters” -based foreign policy
■ “Trade, not aid” -based economic policy
■ A robust foreign policy
7. Conclusion

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