Guess for CSS 2021

Guess papers 2021

Guess for CSS 2021

English Essay

  1. Islamophobiaebglish

Myth or Reality

Responsibility and role of Muslim world

  1. Single National Curriculum

SNC and national integration.

Current education system in Pakistan has become irrelevant to 21st century.

  1. World Peace

World Peace: An elusive dream.

Another World War means a total disaster.

World peace is the responsibility of superpowers.

  1. Covid-19

Covid-19: A big blow to Globalization.

Conspiracy theories about Covid-19 can be disastrous.

Impact of Covid-19 on world economy.

  1. Pakistan

Political stability in Pakistan not possible without democratic attitude of political parties.

Institutional clash: A threat to stability and security of Pakistan.

General Science & Ability

Question 1

(a) What is the importance of Ozone Layer? Explain the causes and effects of ozone depletion.

(b) What is Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming? What are the impacts of Global Warming? Explain.

(c) How Acid Rain is generated? Describe its nature, effects and remedial measures.general

(d) What is Air Pollution? Discuss the sources and effects of various air pollutants on life


Question 2

(a) What is meant by smog? Discuss its types, reactions, effects and remedies

(b) Define Remote Sensing. Discuss its types, mechanism of working, and applications.

(c) What is incineration? Discuss the process, its advantages and disadvantages.

(d) What do you understand by the rocks and their types?

Question 3

(a) What is solar system? Explain the characteristics of following objects of solar system:

  1. Sun; ii. Jupiter; iii. Mars; and iv. Venus

(b) Discuss Universe, theories related to universe, and galaxy. What do you know about Local Group?

(c) Explain the terms Asteroids, Comets and Aurora briefly.

(d) What do you understand by the terms solar eclipse and lunar eclipse? Explain with diagrams. Also discuss Apogee and Perigee.

Question 4

(a) Explain the structure of Earth. Also discuss the composition of atmosphere

(b) Describe the rotation and revolution of earth and their effects.

(c) What are Earthquakes? Explain the types of seismic waves and measurement of Earthquakes.

(d) What is meant by a Natural Disaster? Discuss the causes, effects and prevention of urban Fires and Cyclones.

Question 5

(a) Why atoms form bonds? Discuss different types of chemical bonds in detail.

(b) What are plastics? Differentiate between Thermosetting and Thermoplastics. What are environmental and health effects of Plastics?

(c) Define Energy. Differentiate between Renewable and Non-renewable sources of Energy.

(d) Define Ceramics. Discuss their types and applications.

Question 6

(a) Describe different symptoms, causes, prevention and management strategies of dengue fever.

(b) Discuss the functions of various parts of the cell. Also discuss the similarities and differences between the animal cell and plant cell.

(c) Pancreas is a double gland which not only helps in maintaining the sugar level but also in digesting food. Explain.

(d) Kidneys are organs of excretion as well as osmoregulation. Justify.

Question 7

(a) Write a comprehensive note on Blood Plasma, Blood Cells and Blood Groups.

(b) What are Vertebrates? Explain the features of various classes of vertebrates.

(c) Explain the structure and function of human eye. Also discuss the defects related to human eye.

(d) Explain the nervous system of human body.

Question 8

(a) What are endocrine glands and exocrine glands? Name any two. From which part of the body are the following secreted: Insulin, Thyroxin, Adrenalin, Oestrogen, Testosterone, Cortisol.

(b) Discuss the symptoms, types  and treatment options of polio.

(c) Explain the structure and functions of human heart with labelled diagram.

(d) How proteins are important for human body. Explain their chemistry and importance.

Question 9

(a) What are vitamins? Discuss the importance, sources and deficiency diseases related to vitamins

(b) What is balanced diet? Explain the Biochemistry and importance of carbohydrates and fats.

(c) Describe the traditional and modern methods of food preservation.

(d) Define Networking. Briefly compare the different types of Networking.

Question 10

Notes on Important Topics

(a) Global Positioning System

(b) Fibre optics

(c) Social media websites

(d) Plate tectonics

(e) Artificial Intelligence

(f) Liver as Chief Chemist

(g) Biofuels

(h) Covid-19

General Ability

Percents, probability and sets, ratios and proportions, IQ, equations, age problems, average, word problems, numbers and letters

Current Affairs

  1. Prospects and challenges for CPEC after China-Iran agreement
  2. New wave of Islamophobia in the world, possible repercussions and the way forward
  3. Aftermath of possible US withdrawal from Afghanistan on Pak-Afghan relations
  4. Economic challenges and the way forward for Pakistan post-Covid-19
  5. New order in West Asia (Abraham Accords), possible outcomes and future of the Palestine cause
  6. Impacts of Hydropolitics on South Asia.
  7. Revocation of Article 370; why India has revoked it and what are possible implications? Ways for Pakistan to counter it.current
  8. Reformation in Pakistan’s health system
  9. National and international security challenges to Pakistan
  10. Pakistan-Saudi Arabia relations after recent events
  11. Nature of challenges and opportunities in Pak-US relations in the context of changing regional geo-strategic environment
  12. The South Asian region offers tremendous economic opportunities but those are marred by political challenges of which Kashmir is the principal issue. Discuss.
  13. Increasing influence of Israel in Middle East in the context of her relationship with UAE and Saudi Arabia that seems to be part of Greater Israel at the expense of the containment of Iran and CPEC.
  14. US-China conflict in Indo-Pacific, India-Pakistan conflict in Indian Ocean, impacts on and threats to CPEC
  15. Threat of nuclear war between India and Pakistan,
  16. Afghan peace process and its impact on Pakistan
  17. The growing strategic partnership between Pakistan and Russia

Pakistan Affairs

  1. Shah Waliullah and his Movement
  2. Sir Syed and Aligarh Movement
  3. Iqbal’s role in the promotion of Muslim nationalism in the Subcontinent
  4. Quaid-e-Azam and the Two-Nation Theory
  5. Federalism in Pakistan
  6. The 18th Amendment and its impact in health and education sectors
  7. Distribution of resources among the provinces and its effect on foreign debts
  8. Education sector
  9. Pakistan-India relations
  10. Demographic changes in Kashmirpak
  11. Death of SAARC
  12. Pakistan-China-Russia: an emerging strategic triangle
  13. Role of Pakistan in Afghan Peace Process
  14. Pakistan-Malaysia-Turkey relations and the idea of launching a TV channel to counter Islamophobia
  15. Construction industry and Tourism sector offer a boost to the national economy
  16. CPEC: a debt trap or a full development package?
  17. Civil Service reforms in Pakistan
  18. Pakistan’s water crisis and the need to build large dams

Islamic Studies

  1. Religion and its role in Human Life

✓ Need and importance of Religion in human life in modern times

✓   Distinctive features of Islamic ideology

  1. Fundamental Beliefs and Practices of Islam and their impact on human life

✓ Tahueed

✓ Finality of Prophethood

✓  Day of Judgementislam

Philosophy of Worship and its impact on an individual and collective life 

✓ Salah (Prayer)

✓ Saum (Fasting)

✓ Zakat as:  circulation of wealth; prevailing sociol-economic justice; and poverty alleviation in society

  1. Islamic Code of Life

✓ Salient features of Islamic socio-moral system; Islamic Civilisation and its impact on  Western Civilisation and vice versa

✓ Main characteristics of Islamic Economic System, and how it encompasses the good characteristics of all existing economic systems of the world?

✓ Islamic Economic system is a golden mean and panacea for all economic conundrums of the modern time.

✓ Justice and Accountability in Islam.

✓ Islamic Political thought and salient features of welfare state of Madina

  1. Seerah of Holy Prophet (PBUH) as a Role Model for:

✓ Diplomatic Ingenuity and Peace Building in all domains of life for all times

✓ Educator of Humanity

✓ Reformist and Military Strategist

  1. Governance and Administration in Islam:

✓   Pious Caliphate: History, Governance and Public Administration

✓ Golden age of Umar (RA)

✓ Islamic model of good governance and concept of the welfare state

✓ Responsibilities of Civil Servants

  1. Rights in Islam

✓ History and philosophy of human rights in Islam and modern debates 

✓ Women in Islam and Feminism

  1. Muslim Ummah and the Contemporary Challenges:

✓ Socio-political and religio-economic problems of Muslim Ummah and their pragmatic solutions

✓ Sectarianism

✓ Islamophobia

  1. Sources of Islamic Law

✓ Hadith as primary source of law

✓ Ijma and its procedure

✓ Role of Ijtihad in modern Islamic state


Paper I

  1. Introduction of the subject Consumer behavior
  2. Determination of market demand and supply
  3. ED&Es and their measurements
  4. Theory of the firm
  5. Producer’s equilibrium
  6. Pricing of the factors of production
  7. Partial & general equilibrium
  8. Basic economic concepts
  9. National Income Accounting
  10. Consumption Function and Multiplier
  11. Determination of equilibrium level of income and output
  12. IS&LM
  13. AD&AS
  14. Labour demand and supply
  15. Determination of level of NI Inflaion
  16. Role of foreign aid in economic development
  17. International trade
  18. Definition and measurement of development. Characteristics of under-development, Rethinking on the concept of development
  19. Privatization, denationalization and deregulation, conceptual and operational aspects, international comparisons

Pakistan’s Economy

  1. Growth vs. Development
  2. Sustainable development
  3. Environmental degradation
  4. Planning experience of Pakistan
  5. Interest-free banking in Pakistan
  6. Energy policy of Pakistan
  7. Social sector development in Pakistan
  8. Major issues in Pakistani Economy
  9. Federal Budget 2019-20
  10. Agricultural development in Pakistan
  11. Public Finance
  12. Industrial development

European History

  1. The causes of the French Revolution 1789 were mainly rooted deep into reservoir of socio-economic injustices, highlighted by intellectuals and precipitated by Louis XVI follies. Discuss. What impact the French Revolution had on European future socio-political landscape?
  2. If military victories of Napoleon were ephemeral, then his civil work was written on granite. Discuss.
  3. Critically evaluate the importance of the Congress of Vienna 1815. How far was it successful in addressing the forces of nationalism and liberalism in Europe in next three decades at least?
  4. Compare and contrast the similarities and dissimilarities of Revolutions of 1830 and 1848.
  5. Discuss the process of Unification of Germany with special emphasis on Bismarck’s role towards Unification.
  6. How system of Bismarckian Alliances and Counter-Alliances finally culminated into World War I?
  7. Critically evaluate causes and impacts of Russian Revolution 1917 with special emphasis on Lenin’s contribution.
  8. Discuss the major factors which led to the rise of Fascism in Italy during 1920s. What impact it had on Italian as well as European politics?
  9. Discuss the rise of Nazism in Germany in early 1930s. How far policy of appeasement was responsible to encourage its propagation and expansion?
  10. Discuss the impact of Covid-19 on socio-economic landscape of European Union.
  11. Discuss the challenges and opportunities in Trans-Atlantic relationships.
  12. Write short notes on the following;
  13. Charles de Gaulle
  14. Brexit

iii.           Cold War

Gender Studies

  1. Introduction to Gender Studies

✓  Definition and evolution of Gender Studies, and its multidisciplinary nature.

✓ Status of Gender Studies in Pakistan and how it can be established as an academic discipline?

✓ Autonomy vs. Integration debate in Gender Studies

  1. Social Construction of Gender

✓ Social construction of the gender by different means and at different levels, and consequences for behaving outside the gender norms.

✓ Is Sex socially determined ? How and why gender roles and norms are assigned and practiced on the basis of biological sex ?

✓ Gender Development in the prism of Nature vs. Nurture Debate

  1. Feminist Theories and Practice

✓ History (Waves) and types of Feminism

✓ Feminist Movements in Pakistan: Challenges and Prospects. How feminist movements can alleviate the plight of women in Pakistan?

✓ The significance of Postmodern feminism and Queer Theory in Gender Studies. What are their strengths and weaknesses?

  1. Gender and Development

✓  Discuss WID, WAD and GAD approaches in the prism of different developmental theories 

✓ UN Conferences on Women and Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs)

  1. Impacts of Globalization, Colonization and Capitalism on Women
  2. Status of Women in Pakistan in Domains of:

✓ Education and women empowerment

✓ Health facilities

✓ Economy and employment opportunities

✓ Women and Law: women-oriented laws are neither sufficient nor are they enacted in letter and sprit to protect women’s rights in Pakistan at large.

  1. Women in Politics and Governance

✓ How women’s political mainstreaming and consciousness will guarantee change in status quo of  Pakistan?

✓ How democracy can ensure mitigation of  women’s issues in politics? What are the impacts of political quota in Pakistan?

✓ Political parties in Pakistan are male-dominated. What is the future of women leadership in Pakistani politics?

  1. Gender-Based Violence

✓ Forms and levels of violence

✓ Theories of violence and their application on Pakistani society in the light of case studies in Gender Studies.

✓ Covid-19 and surge in Domestic Violence

✓ Women constitute half of humanity but they are in shambles everywhere. What pragmatic measures can be taken to eliminate violence against women in Pakistani society?

✓ Harassment cases are rampant in Pakistan. What are the types of harassment? Suggest strategies to prevent these cases.

✓ In Pakistan, rape culture is not only systematic, it is reinforced at every level. How can we combat rape culture and victim blaming?

Muslim Law

  1. Marriage
  2. Succession
  3. Ijma-Ijihad
  4. Islamic Criminal Law
  5. Human Rights
  6. Khula
  7. Quran – Sunnah
  8. MFLO, 1961
  9. Child custody and guardianship
  10. Imams and their role
  11. Islamic Banking
  12. Dar-ul-Harab and Dar-ul-Islam
  13. Dower
  14. Contract


  1. Define Crime & Criminology. Discuss Criminal Law, the nature, scope and increasing importance of Criminology in Pakistan?
  2. Crime is the product of different factors (Biological, Psychological, Sociological). Discuss crime as a social problem and new emerging crimes in Pakistan?
  3. The existing Criminal Justice System of Pakistan is said to be a faulty system. How it can be revamped and reformed?
  4. The Juvenile Justice System of Pakistan is said to be not in-accordance with international norms, standard and practices (International guidelines). Do you agree? Point out defects and give suggestions to reform it.
  5. Explain Islamic concept of crime, criminal law and punishment in detail?
  6. What is Criminal Investigation? Who is competent to conduct it? Discuss the role of Forensic Investigation in the criminal justice system of Pakistan? Do you think that forensic evidence should be preferred over ocular account as narrated by the eye witnesses?
  7. Discuss the role of Interpol in combating international terrorism, transnational crimes, global financial crimes.
  8. Enlist National Crime Control Agencies and discuss their roles and functions for preventing new emerging crimes in Pakistan.
  9. Write a detailed note on the following topics
  10. Recidivism and its causes in Pakistan.
  11. White Collar Crime and globalization.

iii. Cybercrimes in Pakistan.

  1. Money laundering in Pakistan, its causes, methods and its socio-economic impacts/effects.
  2. Enlist sociological theories of crime and discuss social differential association theory and social disorganization theory in the Pakistan context.

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