ENGLISH Precis & Composition

(Solved by Prof. Muzaffar Bokhari)

Education and Morality

The only protection for today’s man is to find the use of his intelligence in the service of love. Intelligence can become a means of morality and survival if its training includes human sympathy. Educators can add morality to intelligence. The task of teaching morality was entrusted to the clergymen who failed because of their loyalty to the rich, which resulted into the loss of faith. The practical rulers had no interest in morality. Thus, only educators can teach people love, kindness, integrity and sympathy.


1. Initially the French Revolution was following the right direction. Gradually, obstacles began to appear in its way. The French society was divided into various sects. There was a lot of in fighting. The opposition to Napoleon and the revolution increased. With the result that the revolutionaries started committing atrocities on the opponents. This changed the Revolution into the reign of terror.

2. The American Revolution had much brighter prospects of success as compared to the French Revolution because of the following reasons:

i. The whole American nation was united and had only one aim i.e., to get freedom from the English.
ii. There was no outside interference.
iii. There was no sympathy for the King among the American people.

3. The prime reason for the failure of the French Revolution of was disunity among the French people and the opposition to the revolution by the neighbouring countries.

4. The biggest factor for the success of the American Revolution was that the whole nation was determined to get freedom and their glorious struggle to achieve their aim.


Human nature consists of instincts, for example, the instincts of thirst, hunger, parental love, sex, pugnacity, hoarding, exploration etc. These instincts demand immediate satisfaction. When we are thirsty, we wish to drink water and, when hungry, we want food. Similarly, there are countless desires pertaining to other instincts. Desires are in fact the demands of our instincts.  Living in a society, it is impossible for a man to fulfil all his desires. First of all, a civilized man has to shortlist his desires. He has to give up those desires which offend against the norms or moral standards of a society. Then he is free to seek the fulfilment of his legitimate desires. But living in a competitive society and a world of limited means and unlimited wants, one has to struggle hard for the fulfilment of one’s desires. This struggle must accord to the socially acceptable behaviour.

Sometimes, a man desires to have a particular thing, but he is unable or unwilling to wage the necessary struggle. In other words he desires without deserving. This attitude is dangerous for him as well as for the society. Dangerous for him because the non-fulfilment of his desires will cause disappointment and disillusion. It will be dangerous for the society because such disappointed persons may resort to illegal ways and become undesirable citizens, creating problems for the society. Therefore, in order to fulfil one’s desires, one must prove that he deserves their fulfilment. This is possible if he puts in sincere and strenuous effort to achieve his goal. To desire without deserving is not only futile but it can prove harmful also.


(i)     To bring grist to the mill
His refusal to accept new terms of the contract brings grist to the mill.

(ii)     To keep one’s fingers crossed
We were witnessing the match keeping our fingers crossed

(iii)    With one’s tongue in one’s cheek
He promised to return my money with his tongue in his cheek.

(iv)   A storm in the tea cup
His protest against the high handedness of the police was nothing more than a storm in the tea-cup

(v)    To talk through one’s hat
Instead of coming to the point, they were talking through their hat.

(vi)    Hum and haw
Don’t hum and haw (i.e. hesitate). Take a decision and stick to it.

(vii)   To let the grass grow under one’s feet
Don’t let the grass grow under your feet; start preparing for the examination

(viii)   Penny wise and pound foolish.
He is careful in saving small suns, but wasteful in large matters. He is so to say, penny wise pound foulest


i.    Each furniture in this display is on sale for half price.
Each piece of furniture in this display is on sale for half price

ii.    He is abusing the money of his father.
He is misusing his father’s money.

iii.   The duties of the new secretary are to answer the telephone, to type letters and bookkeeping.
The duties of the new secretary are answering the telephone, typing letters and bookkeeping.

iv.   The new models are not only less expensive but more efficient also.
The new models are not only less expensive but also more efficient.

v.    He complied with the requirement that all graduate students in education should write a thesis.
He complied with the requirement that each graduate student in education should write a thesis.

vi.   No sooner we left the shop it began to rain.
No sooner did we leave the shop than it began to rain.

vii.  The population of Karachi is greater than any other city in Pakistan.
The population of Karachi is greater than that of any other city in Pakistan.

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