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Expected Essays for CSS 2023 Outlines

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Expected Essays for CSS 2023 Outlines


Topic 1: All humans are born equal in dignity and rights but they are in shackles everywhere.
1. Introduction
2. Purpose and place of humans in this world
3. Concept of freedom and shackles
· Positive freedom
· Negative freedom
4. Freedom: birthright for humans
5. Is man free? Of course, not!
a. Shackles in individual domain
i. Infancy: the sweet will of parents
ii. School life: at the mercy of education system
iii. Adolescence: peer pressure
iv. Adult age: livelihood pressures and marital affairs
b. Responsibility replaces accountability but the chains continue
c. Chains in collective life
i. Psychological shackles
ii. Spiritual chains
iii. Physical hurdles
iv. Moral obligations
v. Economic obstacles
vi. Socio-political impediments
6. Impacts of these shackles on the life of a free-born man
· Positive impacts
· Negative impacts
7. Should man be absolutely free? A big no!
8. Fetters of absolute freedom
9. Recommendations for the survival of a free-born man in shackles
10. Real freedom with the customized general will for prospering the chained life of humans
11. Conclusion
Topic 2: The State of minority rights in Pakistan
1. Introduction
2. Religious minorities in Pakistan
3. Abysmal state of minority rights
a. Intolerance and religious hatred
b. Destruction of scared religious places
c. Targeted victimization and killings
d. Harassment and forced conversions
e. Allegations of blasphemy
f. Social discrimination
g. Economic biases
h. Religious prisoners
4. Pakistan’s international rankings: proof of the sorry state of affairs
5. Causes of pathetic state of minority rights
a. Biased curriculum
b. Talk on differences only
c. Extremist approach
d. Inability of state to create consensus
e. Lack of vibrant participation of minorities in state affairs
f. Identity crisis
6. Impacts of this poor state of minority rights
7. Previous laws made by government to protect the minorities: A handicapped measure
8. Some positive developments from the recent past
9. Recommendations to ameliorate the Pathetic state of Minorities
10. Conclusion
Topic 3: The breach of cyber security in Pakistan: Implications suggestions for improvement.
1. Introduction
– Cyber crimes increased by over 83 pc in last three years
2. Defining cyber security
3. Types of cyber attacks
a. Phishing attacks
b. Malware attack
c. Insider threat
d. Ransom ware
4. The breach of cyber security in Pakistan: instances
a. Automated cyber-attacks on small businesses in 2022
b. PM office audio leaks Sept.-2022
c. FBR website hacked in 2021
d. K-Electric website hacked in 2021
e. Fraudulent transactions in Ehsaas Program
f. Financial frauds reported by FIA
5. Reasons behind the sorry state of affairs in cyber security
a. Incompetent cyber security agencies
b. Vulnerabilities/patches
c. Lack of awareness on cyber crimes
6. Implications of cyber security breaches
a. Financial implications
b. Compromises national Security
c. Tarnishes the country’s image globally
d. Harassments and defamations
7. Suggestions for improvement
i. Awareness and certifications on cyber security
— Digital Pakistan Cyber Security Hackathon 2021
ii. Liaison among cyber security agencies, IT departments and courts
iii. Effective implementation of first cyber security policy
iv. Identifying linkages between virtual and real world
v. Mandatory installation of cyber security systems
8. Earlier materialization of computer emergency response team (CERT)
9. Conclusion
Topic 4: 2022 Floods and role of NDMA in Pakistan
1. Introduction
2. Defining
a. Disasters and disaster management
3. Outlining the role of NDMA in Pakistan
a. Planning for future natural and manmade disasters
b. Issuing early warnings about more than usual rainfall
c. Stockpiling of supplies
d. Evacuation and rehabilitation strategies
4. Phases of disaster management: A tale of pathetic affairs
a. Mitigation
b. Preparedness
c. Response
d. Recovery
5. Overview of 2022 floods: failures of NDMA
a. One third of country under water
b. 2000 dead and 33 million displaced
c. Over 40 billion USD damages
d. Inflation and food shortages
6. Reasons behind the damages and poor performance of NDMA
a. Natural vulnerability of Pakistan vis-à-vis climate change
b. Significant changes in weather patterns and ill-preparedness of NDMA
c. Disconnect between NDMA/PDMAs and meteorological department
d. Poor governance and weak political will
e. Illegal and uncontrolled constructions
7. Implications
a. Intractable political and economic crises
b. Worsening humanitarian crises
c. Exacerbating infrastructure losses
8. Suggestions to improve the functioning of NDMA
a. Hazard and risk assessment
b. Effective communication and preparedness
c. Disaster risk-reduction education
d. Promoting disaster-risk planning
e. Effective community and local level risk-reduction programming
f. Improving multi-hazard early warning system
g. Capacity building for post-disaster recovery
9. Conclusion

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