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Expected Essays for CSS 2023 Outlines

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Expected Essays for CSS 2023 Outlines

Threat of Brain Drain Causes, implications and solutions

1.  Introduction
The migration of intellectual manpower from underdeveloped countries to developed states is a global phenomenon, and Pakistan is no exception. But, brain drain has recently risen to alarming levels.
2. Brain drain in Pakistan: Statistics from Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment
· Country’s brain drain situation has aggravated in 2022.
· Official documents stated more than 765,000 educated youth left for employment overseas.
· 92,000 of the emigrants this year are highly educated and professionals.
· 2022 figures rise after a consecutive fall in the last two years
· 2022 figures triple the 225,000 departures last year, and 288,000 emigrants in 2020
3.  Causes of brain drain in Pakistan
· Inflation and shrinking job opportunities
· Uncertain economic and political situation
· Job dissatisfaction and poor economic returns
· Professional isolation
· Lack of proper planning for manpower
· Limited opportunities for further studies, research and development
· Family considerations and better living standards
4.  Implications of brain drain on Pakistan
5.  Suggestions to discourage brain drain
· Educational reforms
· Equal opportunities
· Secure and good working environment
· Fair recruitment and respect for merit
· Better economic returns against working hours
6. Encouragement, respect and the sense of ownership: prescription for the retention of intellectual brains
7.  Conclusion

The State of Transgender Rights in Pakistan

1. Introduction
· Transgender people in Pakistan are ignored in every walk of life. An estimated population of over 1.5 million transgender people faces various challenges as it is harassed and sidelined by the society and neglected by the government.
· Two percent of Pakistani population is struck with transgenderism
2. Defining a ‘transgender
· Transgender by birth
· Transgender by choice
3. State of transgender rights in Pakistan
· Discarded and abandoned by own family
· LGBT is a symbol of shame and ignominy
· Mental torture of stigmatization
· Vulnerability to physical abuse and killing (the case of Alisha in LRH Peshawar)
· Dearth of protection homes
· Guru-Chela system forcing begging, dancing and prostitution
· Failure of the governments in filling the allocated seats for transgender people
4. Winds of change for transgender people in Pakistan
· Rimal Ali appointed Gender Discrimination Coordinator of a welfare wing of a political party
· Sarah Gil: first transgender doctor
· Nisha Rao: first transgender lawyer
· Kami Sid: transgender fashion model
· News channel Kohinoor hires a transgender news reader Marvia Malik.
· Alisha: coordination consultant for UNDP
· Aisha: consultant, Ministry of Human Rights
5. Constitutional safeguards and efforts by the state to safeguard transgender rights
· Article 4, 9 and 25 of the Constitution of 1973
· Supreme Court directing NADRA to create a third gender on the CNIC
· Transgender Persons Act, 2018: providing self-identification to trans persons
· Quota of jobs for the transgender community: 0.5 and two percent in Sindh and KP, respectively
6. Religion and the status of transgender
7. Recommendations to revamp the pathetic state of transgender rights in Pakistan
· Implementation of trans rights laws
· Criminalization of trans-phobic hate speech
· Protection of transgender persons through the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights), Act. 2018, in the best of its form
· Allocation and proper implementation of quota in educational institutions and services
8. Conclusion

Emergence of Street Power and Threats to Democracy in Pakistan

1. Introduction
2. Defining street power
· A belief that an elected government can be de-legitimized through protests
· Road closure, disruption of traffic and hampering of government business are a few manifestations of street power
3. Historical evolution of street power in Pakistan
· A history of long marches and sit-ins: 1980-2022
4. Reasons behind the emergence of street power in Pakistan
· High inflation and exuberant food prices are pushing people to have intolerant approaches
· Failure of political parties in adopting political norms
· March of protagonists deterring democratic establishments
· Vested interests of political parties
· Failure of state institutions in maintaining law and order
· Persecution of people from opposition parties in the name of accountability
· Role of establishment in politics
5. Challenges posed by street power to democracy
· Promotes intolerance thereby jeopardizing human rights
· Public upheaval against elected representatives
· Revolts due to stagflation create an impasse
· Undermines the concepts of federation and nation-state
· Hinders dispensation of justice and hampers judicial process
· Underscores economic growth, thus failing democratic governments
· interrupts service delivery and hence inflicts bad governance
· Sit-ins outside parliament are a vivid depiction of failing democratic norms
6. Recommendations: steering through street power to strengthen democracy
7. Conclusion

Art is an Integral Telling of Our Identity

1. Introduction
2. Meaning of the aphorism
· Paintings, music, literature and movies are the projection of one’s own self and, thus, assist one in expressing true reality of one’s identity.
3. Art is an integral telling of identity: supporting arguments
A. National level analysis:
· Fiction writers feel constant urge to present real-time experiences
· Art helps embrace historical identity 
i. Imtiaz Ali Taj’s drama: Anarkali 
ii. Naseem Hijazi’s novel Muhammad bin Qasim
· Art is a tool to counter homogenization of cultural identities in a multicultural landscape
I. “The South Asian identity seems to have become a prisoner to the foreign gaze.” Taha Kehar

B. Global instances:
· Japanese floral art: depiction of their peaceful identity
· “Three perfections” of China
· Persian art of Iran
4. Our identity has evolved and so has our art
· Buddhist sculptures in the 60s: depiction of a peaceful society and portrayal of religious tourism
· Theatre before 90s: graceful and classy
· Theatre after 90s: vulgarity and violence
5. Art depicting the ugly truths of society boldly
· Case study of the movies “Joyland” and “Khamosh Paani” 
· Example of drama “Udaari”
· Glaring proof from the movie “Bol”
6. Art speaks louder than actions in a society facing the threat of losing the identity
7. Conclusion

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