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Solved Paper of PAKISTAN AFFAIRS CSS-2012

Q. what is bureaucracy and what are its characteristics? How did it play its role in strengthening and integration of Pakistan?

Imran Khan The Pied Piper of Pakistan?
Friday, June 01, 2012

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Ans:
Bureaucracy is an association of officials carrying out operational and administrative tasks. The officials serving in the bureaucracy are called bureaucrats. Bureaucrats are mostly non-elected officials, with the exception of a very few countries where certain tiers of bureaucracy are elected. In bureaucracy the officials and employees are assigned specific responsibilities and they have to work within the hierarchy of an authority.

Characteristics of Bureaucracy:
1. Well defined hierarchy of governance.
2. Management of tasks through rules.
3. Specifically assigned functions.
4. A bureaucrat is required to be impersonal in carrying out his work.
5. Job security is to be ensured to the bureaucrats in carrying out tough decisions.
6. Well defined regulations for upward mobility.

Role of Bureaucracy in Strengthening and Integration of Pakistan:
1. Provided government in the times when democratic governments were sent home, so made the country governable in testing times.
2. Kept those parts of Pakistan governed where the elected representatives were not there like FATA.
3. Served as a cushion between the masses and law-enforcing arm of the state.
4. Worked towards ensuring meritocracy.
5. Despite shortcomings in fulfilling the assigned work, no other institution could replace it.  

Conclusion:
Notwithstanding what the bureaucracy did for Pakistan, it is a matter of fact that it has not been a bureaucracy of an ideal democracy. It is a conservative bureaucracy which has resisted change over the time. It has helped the dictators negatively in doing away with the democratic dispensations, and had helped them in their quest for consolidation of their power. Pakistan's bureaucracy needs to be made professional and able to cater for the modern needs.. It can only be done through transparent and credible selection process and an up to date training process.  

Q. Discuss critically the role of SilSilah( orders) in the development and progress of Muslim Society in the Subcontinent of Indo Pakistan?
Ans: In the subcontinent Sufi's and Saints were the ones who introduced Islam. It was purely through their efforts that Islam evolved its base in India and from that the concept of spiritualism arose. Sufi's and Saints apart from preaching their religion in a peaceful manner also worked to forge good relations between the different nations of Indian Subcontinent. They not only guided their Muslim brethren in molding their lives according to the basic teachings of Islam but also showed them the ways to make good and brotherly relations with the followers of other religions.

The major Silsilah (Orders) in the Subcontinent:
1. The Shadhiliyya order
2. The Chishti order
3. The Shattariya order
4. The Suhrawardi order
5. The Qadiri order
6. The Naqshbandi order

Conclusion:
Saints introduced mystical form of Islam which was very moderate and projected the peace-loving nature of this religion. Hindus and Hinduism were deeply influenced by the Sufi saints of these orders. Their teachings played integral role in the social, economical and philosophical development of the Muslims. Islam spread swiftly in the Indian subcontinent and across Asia due to their selfless teachings. It can safely be remarked that it was Sufi Muslim saints, not conquerors, who spread Islam in this part of the world.

Q. The location of Pakistan has given the strategic strength to the state. What are its physical features and narrate its advantages and disadvantages?
Ans: Pakistan's strategic position has undoubtedly rendered it such an immense importance that it cannot be ignored by the world powers. Pakistan's strategic location provides economic incentives too by placing it at the hub of future economic activity in South Asia. Pakistan is also considered as the gateway to central Asia and it's expected that its ports will attract shipments to and from Central Asia to other parts of the world. For trading to Far East, the ports of Pakistan are the most attractive refueling stops. Pakistan is such placed strategically that it provides access to the warm water, to the land locked countries like Afghanistan, and to the southern provinces of China.

The Physical Features of Pakistan:
1. Rivers like Indus River and its five major subsidiaries making the planes fertile.
2. Mountain ranges like the Hindu Kush and Himalayas on the north.
3. Pakistan is placed on the tropic of cancer making it best place for agriculture.
4. The fertile planes of Punjab.
5. Climatically well placed, as it gets four seasons.
6. It has a long coastline.
7. Forests that make about 5 percent of the total Pakistan.
8. Huge gas and coal reserves and considerable oil reserves in the desert and arid regions.

Advantages of the Physical Features of Pakistan:
1. One of the largest irrigation system in the world: irrigates about 28 percent of land.
2. Its rivers are navigable, so transport can be done through them.
3. Its four seasons provide it with diverse crops, so there is no reliance on single crop.
4. The huge forests at the North make for 5 percent of Pakistan, making it almost wood self-reliant.
5. The mountain ranges at the north provide natural protection against the cold Siberian winds.
6. Large tract of land in Balochistan can provide natural strategic depth and Pakistan wouldn't need to seek strategic depth in Afghanistan.

Disadvantages:
1. Extreme weathers at different locations.
2. Monsoons resulting in floods.
3. The planes of Punjab does not provide natural barrier in the face of an Indian military assault.
4. The large tract of land in Balochistan has made it difficult to access even for the state in providing essential services.

Conclusion:
By analyzing the both advantages and disadvantages of the physical features of Pakistan, it can safely be concluded that the advantages far exceed the disadvantages.

Q. what are the security concerns of Pakistan? Suggest measures by revisiting the foreign policy of Pakistan?

Ans: Pakistan faces multi-pronged security concerns, but mostly these concerns emanate from India's Military might and its nefarious designs. There are many indigenous issues also that have become security threats for Pakistan. A congruent and a well defined Foreign Policy can do away with almost more than half of these threats. Lets have a look at salient security concerns of Pakistan and some foreign policy measures that can help to tackle these issues.

Security Concerns:

1. India's growing power in terms of economy and military might.
2. Threat to Pakistan's Sovereignty due to attacks from Afghanistan.
3. India's Growing Influence in Afghanistan and its perceived anti-Pakistan activities.
4. Indigenous acts of terrorism from Taliban.
5. The insurgency in Baluchistan.
6. The resurgent energy crisis resulting in destabilization of the country.
7. Sectarian issue.

Suggested Foreign Policy Measures:

 1. Promote trade and commerce to keep hostilities at bay.
 2. Foreign policy should not be India centric.
 3. Relaxed Visa Regime.
 4. Foreign Policy should be sole prerogative of the parliament.
 5. Foreign Policy should depart from that of security state to welfare state.
 6. Import of technology to tackle energy crisis.
 
 Conclusion:
 Pakistan already has a nuclear umbrella for its security, and by virtue of that the possibility of an all out war with India is not a reality now. Pakistan's paranoiac approach towards the threat from the East is a bit miscalculated, and the situation calls for a review of that approach towards the foreign policy. Wanton expenditure of resources in that direction will take us no where.
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